Podnikání ve fitness - Založení fitness centra

23.01.2014 17:15

Ve spolupráci s Českou komorou fitness spouštíme novou rubriku. Ta vychází z velké části ze zpracovaných právních analýz komory a přináší důležité informace o tom, jak začít podnikat ve fitness.

Mnoho lidí dnes vidí v oblasti fitness velký potenciál pro podnikání. Není se čemu divit, počet fitness center i jejich návštěvníků u nás postupně stoupá a nic nenasvědčuje tomu, že by se na tom něco mělo změnit. Pokud i pro vás je toto téma aktuální, pokusíme se vám přiblížit, jak proces založení vlastně probíhá.

Na začátek je potřeba si říct, že musíte být samozřejmě podle legislativy považováni za fitness centrum.

 

Co tedy fitness centrum vlastně je?

Fitness centrum je z pohledu legislativy prostor pro konání pohybových aktivit, které mají za cíl všeobecnou fyzickou kondici, zdatnost, zlepšování držení těla, rozvoj svalstva a podobně. Využívají se tu činky, trenažéry a další speciální přístroje. Většina center dnes nabízí také mnoho jiných služeb jako masáže, saunu, vířivky, poradenství, prodej různých doplňků výživy a jiné.

I při poskytování těchto služeb je samozřejmě nutné splňovat podmínky na to, abyste spadali do kategorie fitness centrum.

 

Živnost nebo firma?

Co se týče samotného založení, je třeba mít jasno v tom, jestli chceme podnikat jako fyzická nebo právnická osoba. Dobrou zprávou je, že při zakládání fitness centra máte na výběr z obou variant.

Pokud se rozhodnete podnikat jako fyzická osoba, znamená to, že musíte být vlastníkem živnostenského listu, máte podle obchodního zákoníku statut podnikatele a zapisujete se do živnostenského rejstříku. Živnostenský list může získat každá osoba po dosažení 18 let, která je bezúhonná a způsobilá k právním úkonům. K podnikání jakožto fitness centra je potřeba pouze živnost volná, Provozovaní tělovýchovných zařízení. Při tomto typu podnikání, tedy na ŽL, můžeme považovat za výhodu fakt, že nepotřebujete velké množství peněz na vytvoření základního jmění. Je ale nutno podotknout, že v tomto byznysu jsou počáteční investice většinou vysoké i bez této položky.

Další, pro mnohé podstatnější, výhodou je jednoduchost administrativy. Tu drobní živnostníci zvládají většinou sami, nemusí si tak zpravidla najímat účetní nebo právníky.

Abychom však neřešili jenom příjemnou stránku podnikání na živnostenský list, je nutno připomenout největší nevýhodu, která odrazuje mnoho potenciálních živnostníků. Za závazky totiž ručíte celým svým majetkem v plné výši.

 

Pokud se naopak rozhodnete založit si fitness centrum jako právnická osoba (PO), je určitě pozitivní, že tuto možnost má každá PO bez ohledu na formu nebo zaměření. V praxi to znamená, že si můžete za tímto účelem založit nebo využit už existující s.r.o., akciovou společnost, nebo kteroukoli jinou formu. Fitness centrum tak může provozovat třeba škola, obec, nebo i církevní spolek.

Při zakládání právnické osoby je však nutno počítat s větší časovou i finanční náročností, o čem vypovídají třeba větší nároky na účetnictví a tím i angažování odborné účetní.

Právnické osoby ručí na rozdíl od živnostníků jenom svým obchodním majetkem a společníci ručí pouze do výše svého nesplaceného vkladu. To se však s novým občanským zákoníkem upravuje. Dříve platila povinnost minimálního základního jmění společnosti s ručením omezeným (s.r.o.) ve výši 200 tis. Kč. Tím společnost ručila za svoje podnikání případným věřitelům. Ve skutečnosti opak byl pravdou. Dnes tato povinnost zaniká a s.r.o. je tak možné založit se základním kapitálem již od 1 Kč. To má však svá specifika, protože případnou ochranu věřitelů s.r.o. zajišťují kromě ustanovení o správě majetku společnosti a odpovědnosti také pravidla o testu insolvence, které společnosti zakazují poskytovat určitá plnění v případě, že by si tím způsobila úpadek. Odpovědnost se tak více přenáší na majitele a jednatele. Tedy se rizikem přibližuje podnikání na ŽL.

Podnikání jako právnická osoba má také některá pozitiva. Kupříkladu zpravidla snadněji získáte úvěr a při obchodování s většími a významnějšími klienty působíte důvěryhodněji (ovšem s ohledem na svůj základní kapitál).

 

Je tedy potřebné zvážit všechny výhody a nevýhody obou forem, zejména dle finančních možností a ochoty riskovat svůj vlastní soukromý majetek a připravit se na tu nejtěžší část – samotné provozování fitness centra.

Více si o výhodách a nevýhodách té které formy řekneme v dalším díle tohoto seriálu.

 

Autor: Katarína Šlesaríková, na základě právní analýzy České komory fitness
Foto: Freedigitalphotos.net

 

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